RURAL UPLIFT CENTRE
Parvathipuram.
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Community Managed Disaster Risk Reduction
Community Managed Disaster Risk Reduction.
Result: People of eleven drought prone and four flood prone communities are resilience to drought and flood.

Partnership: Cordaid, The Netherlands.

Area of operation: Eleven drought prone communities (Eraippuvari, Elangal, Arumaneri, Silayam, Eduppur, Chinthamani, Lethikulam, Kallathi, Padapparkulam, Koonthakulam, Seelathikulam) and four flood prone communities (Melapathai, Moongiladi, Pachandiram and Pallikondankudiruppu) in Tirunelveli district, Tamil Nadu.

Project period: 01.03.2008 to 31.12.2011
Target population:
Heading
People at risk to the hazard Men Women Children Disabled Old aged Total
Drought 1767 2173 702 31 201 4774
Floods 1180 1359 170 17 85 2711
The processes in Community managed Disaster Risk Reduction are:
1.The identification of drought / flood risk factors by the community:
Drought risks:
The processes in Community managed Disaster Risk Reduction are:
Shortfall of average rain falls - 600 mm per year.
The existing irrigation tanks are covered with silt, Julie flora. The bunds are damaged to the extent that they could not withstand the water holding capacity of the tank.
Lack of feeder canals or damaged feeder canals to the existing ponds
Lack of percolation tanks for collecting run off rain waters.
No linkage with Tamirabarani Comprehensive Drinking water distribution system for regular supply of protected drinking water.
Lack of adequate overhead drinking water tanks and delivery systems.
Lack of knowledge on drought resistant crops & Lack of knowledge on utilizing the minimum available water resources for agriculture.
Non compliance of minimum wages under National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme by the Government.
Lack of employment other than the 100 days employment offered under NREGS
Non-availability of subsidy scheme to encourage and promote cattle rearing.
Lack of savings habit among the members of the community
Lack of access to government welfare schemes such as 35kgs of rice per month to the people below poverty line, educational Scholarship, assistance to physically challenged, marriage support to poor, old age pension, assistance to pregnant women, two acres of patta land to landless and permanent houses to the hut dwellers.
Lack of food grains storage facility.
No Village Information Centre available for receiving early warning on potential disasters.
Lack of District Disaster Management Authority, Disaster Risk Reduction plan and non allocation of mitigation fund at the District level.
Lack of knowledge on Insurance Schemes for securing their lives.
Lack of knowledge on crop Insurance.
Lack of remunerative Entrepreneur Development Program (EDP) for youth, person with disability and women
Lack of basic knowledge on Disaster Risk analysis and disaster management system.
Flood risks:
Poorly engineered houses and houses located in the vulnerable location
Channels are silted with mud and bushes, which prevent the free flow of water
Both sides of the Bunds of the canals are weakened
Lack of house site title deeds to those living on the bank of the canals.
Lack of knowledge on flood resistant cropping system
Lack of protected drinking water
Lack of toilet facilities
Lack of crop insurance schemes.
Lack of protection for crops from wild animals
Lack of rescue centres during disasters.
Lack of savings habit among the members of the community
Lack of access to government welfare schemes such as 35kgs of rice per month to the people below poverty line, lack of access to educational Scholarship, assistance to physically challenged, marriage support to poor, old age pension , assistance to pregnant women, two acres of patta land to landless and permanent houses to the hut dwellers
Lack of alternative employment opportunities
No Village Information Centre available for receiving early warning on potential disasters.
Lack of District Disaster Management Authority, Disaster Risk Reduction plan and non allocation of mitigation fund at the District level.
Lack of knowledge on Insurance Schemes for securing their lives.
Lack of knowledge on crop Insurance.
Lack of remunerative Entrepreneur Development Program (EDP) for youth, person with disability and women.
Lack of basic knowledge on Disaster Risk analysis and disaster management system
2 . Evolution of Disaster Risk Reduction plan by the community:
2.a. Drought risk reduction plan
RUC facilitated the community and the "Task force" to plan disaster risk reduction activities. The community and the task force evolved the following plan.
  1. Ten major ponds and a supply canal have to be deepened by removing the silt and the Julie flora that occupies major portion of the tank and bund are to be removed. The bunds around the tank have to be strengthened to withstand more quantity of water.
  2. Undertaking advocacy and lobbying with the Government department to:-
    Construct percolation tanks and to construct separate link canals from major reservoir to supply water to the irrigation tanks.
    Undertake maintenance work in all the sluices in the tanks for regulating water supply for irrigation.
    Link the villages with Tamirabarani comprehensive drinking water supply scheme.
    Provide additional drinking water facilities.
    Enhance the working days from 100 to 200, increasing the daily wages from Rs.80 to Rs.100/- under National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme, declare Tirunelveli district as drought prone district and write-off the land tax. by passing appropriate resolutions in the Grama sabha.
    Constitute District Disaster Management Authority, preparation of Disaster Risk Reduction plan and allocation of mitigation fund.
    Availing government welfare schemes such as 35kgs of rice per month to the people below poverty line, educational Scholarship, assistance to physically challenged, marriage support to poor, old age pension, assistance to pregnant women, two acres of patta land to landless and permanent houses to the hut dwellers.
    Allot suitable and sufficient land for constructing the Disaster Management Information centre & food grain storage.
  3. Identifying drought resistance crops suitable for the village and capacitates the farmers to cultivate those crops for their better livelihood.
  4. Conducting capacity building on animal husbandry and providing subsidy to 602 landless for purchasing of cattle.
  5. Providing assistance to Persons with Disability for undertaking Income Generation Programme.
  6. Introducing small savings & micro credit facility in the village
  7. Constructing 11 village Disaster Management Information Centre and food grain storage facility.
  8. Facilitate the people to join in the Insurance Schemes like Jeevan Mathur, Jeevan Mangal and other Insurance scheme. Also demand the Government to pay the premium amount.
  9. Facilitate all farmers to enroll them in the Crop Insurance Scheme and request the Government to pay the premium amount.
  10. Entrepreneurship Development training Programme has to be introduced to youth, person with disability and women.
  11. Conducting public meetings, first aid training, mock drills, leadership trainings, orientation on social forestry, mobilization of community fund , orientation on Govt. welfare measures to various group of people.
  12. Conducting orientation on Disaster Risk Reduction for various hazards to children and to community.
  13. Contingency plan for ensuring drinking water facilities.
2.b. Flood risk reduction plan :
Undertaking maintenance or rebuilding of one hundred and forty four houses in the four villages.
Undertaking maintenance work, construction of retention walls in Patchandrum and Moongilady.
Demanding the Government to
Undertake maintenance work in Nangunerian canal
Link the villages with Tamirabarani comprehensive drinking water supply scheme enabling them to get regular drinking water.
Provide additional drinking water facilities.
Availing government welfare schemes such as 35kgs of rice per month to the people below poverty line, educational Scholarship, assistance to physically challenged, marriage support to poor, old age pension, assistance to pregnant women, two acres of patta land to landless and permanent houses to the hut dwellers.
Allot suitable and sufficient land for constructing the Disaster Management Information centre & rescue centres.
Constitute District Disaster Management Authority, preparation of Disaster Risk Reduction plan and allocation of mitigation fund
Identifying flood resistance crops suitable for the village and capacitates the farmers to cultivate those crops for their better livelihood.
Facilitate the people to join in the Insurance Schemes like Jeevan Mathur, Jeevan Mangal and other Insurance scheme. Also demand the Government to pay the premium amount.
Providing micro credit assistance to farmers
Facilitate all farmers to enroll them in the Crop Insurance Scheme and request the Government to pay the premium amount.
Entrepreneurship Development training Programme for youth, person with disability and women
Establishing rescue centres and disaster management information centres in four villages
Conducting public meetings, mock drills, orientation on social forestry, orientation on Govt. welfare measures, mobilization of community fund, leadership trainings to various group of people
Conducting orientation on Disaster Risk Reduction for various hazards to children and to community.
3.a. Implementation of the disaster risk reduction programme in drought prone villages.
The disaster risk reduction task force committee with the support of RUC conducted different capacity building programme to facilitate the community with the CMDRR process/risk reduction monitoring.
Five days capacity building training on risk analysis.
Two days motivation and leadership training.
Six days public meetings and half yearly meetings each on community managed disaster risk reduction
One public meeting each on the importance of life Insurance in all the 11 villages.
Two days orientation programme on welfare measures for livelihood.
One day mobilization of community fund
One day orientation programme on social forestry to livelihood.
Two days intensive training for the leaders of the CMDRR task force members and leaders.
Awareness campaigns were conducted to the task force leaders and youth on Life Insurance with the support of Insurance Companies.
One day capacity building training on entrepreneur development programme (EDP) and two days on income generation & management workshop were conducted to 31 physically challenged people. They were provided with subsidy of Rs.5000/- each to start employment of their own
Thirteen volunteers were oriented on DRR syllabus preparation and teaching methodology. Conducted eighty orientation classes @ three hours each on disaster risk reduction to nine hundred and seventeen school going students.
Three hundred and seven youth from the 11 villagers have been facilitated for the continuation of their technical education.
RUC conducted an expert study on flood and drought resistant cropping pattern under the leadership of Agriculture Scientist Dr. Sam Raj. Based on the recommendation conducted eighteen days orientation on organic farming including two days exposure programme to 117 farmers.
Disaster Risk reduction committee identified and recommended 602 landless poor beneficiaries endorsed by the Village Panchayat to RUC for considering subsidy for the purchase of cattle. The beneficiaries were given three days intensive training on animal husbandry in collaboration with Animal Husbandry Research Institute, Tirunelveli. A special Action Committee consisting of a Veterinary doctor, one of the Disaster Risk reduction committee members and a staff of RUC was formed. This committee assesses the quality of the animals at the door step of the beneficiaries and recommended for the subsidy. Based on the recommendations and the approval of the RUC executive committee all the 602 beneficiaries were provided with a subsidy of Rs.4000/- each for the purchase of milch animals. All the animals except goats were insured with United India Insurance Company.
DRR Task force Committee members identified selected suitable land and obtained the appropriate approval from the Panchayat for the construction of Disaster Risk Reduction Information Centre cum food grain storage. RUC invited tenders from the builders for the construction of disaster Risk Reduction cum Information Centre and finalized the builder. DRR Task force Committee identified community representative for monitoring the Construction process. The community representatives were trained in building construction monitoring process by the expert Engineer Moses, C.S.I Institute of technology, Nagercoil. RUC Engineer and the site supervisor along with the community monitors supervised the construction process.
Disaster Management Information Centre was established with internet facility and displayed contact details of all Disaster Management officers of Government of India, Government of Tamil Nadu, Member of Parliament, Member of Legislative Assembly, District panchayat chairperson, District panchayat member, Union chairperson, Union member, Panchayat president, Members of Task force, Members of Sub committees, RUC staff and other stakeholders in all the villages. The communities selected one volunteer each and imported three days training on internet operation.
Provided drinking water facility such as deepening of the existing well, construction of bore wells, laying of supply lines, electric motor pumps, public distribution points in seven villages as the panchayat did not have sufficient funds to undertake the works.
RUC obtained special permission from the chief minister of Tamil Nadu and Public Work Department for removal of silt, removal of Julie flora and strengthening of the bunds. The Disaster Risk Reduction task force committee invited tenders and selected the contractor through systematic process for removal of silt, removal of Julie flora and strengthening of the bunds in the ten ponds and a supply canal at Elangal. The Disaster Risk Reduction task force committee recommended the contractor to RUC for final approval. Earth excavation machines and transporting vehicles were used for the work. DRR Task force Committee members selected two representatives each for monitoring the removal of silt, removal of Julie flora and strengthening of the bunds and the maintenance of the supply canal. The monitoring committee assessed the work done every day and calculated the volume of work carried out and its cost based on the contract agreement. The Julie flora were removed from the tank and bund at an average area of 1200 sq. meters each, removed 6000 cubic meters silt of soil each and transported for strengthening the bunds in ten villages and desilted and strengthened 8377 meters of supply canal @ 2 meters width and one metre height
Encouraged and facilitated to start small savings schemes in all the villages. 698 persons saved an amount of Rs:11,85,190/-. 480 persons received credit assistance of Rs:26,25,850/- and also availed bank loans of Rs:16,70,000/- by 160 for various socio economic activities.
RUC provided micro credit to two hundred and sixty three members to a tune of Rs. 19, 65,000/-.
Conducted mock drill in collaboration with the fire & rescue team of Government of Tamil Nadu to familiarize the rescue and emergency treatment measures in the event of fire, flood or earthquake and conducted three days first aid training to the task force members of all 11 villages.
Conducted one-day each capacity building on Risk Reduction monitoring to all the DRR task force and People's movement leaders.
Conducted one-day each capacity building on rights based approach on DRR to all the DRR task force and People's movement leaders
Conducted four days each capacity building on contingency plan evolving to all the DRR task force and People's movement leaders.
Conducted coordination meetings with Government, NGOs, and Peoples Movements.
3.c. Policy advocacy
Memorandums were prepared for the respective Disaster Risk Reduction & development action programmes and submitted the same to the village Panchayats, Tamil Nadu Water and Drainage Board, Member of Legislative Assembly, District Collector, Chief Minister, Tahsildars etc. for consideration. We also persuaded the matter with the concerned department heads for implementation.
Facilitated t he community to avail drought mitigation measures from the Government.
Conducted capacity building training to Government officials and task force members of nine Panchayats Unions in Kanyakumari District and District task force officers of Kanyakumari District, fire service and rescue team of Kanyakumari District, Integrated child Development workers cum Disaster Management Educators of Nanguneri and Radhapuram taluks in Tirunelveli District. .
RUC conducted policy advocacy with Executives, State Legislatures, Deputy Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu and Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu to constitute State Disaster Management Authority.
RUC conducted one day workshop for the NGOs and People's Movement leaders on climate Justice and conducted a State level workshop in collaboration with Tamil Nadu Coordination Committee on Campaign against Global Warming.
The students and parents were sensitized for demanding climate justice from the heads of Developed Nations. 500 children along with the community leaders conducted a campaign at Kanyakumari demanding to constitute Global fund for climate justice, transfer of free technology to third world countries to respond global warming and to reduce carbon emission.
Conducted coordination meeting with Panchayat President, Panchayat members and formed consortium of PRI members for better implementation of drought mitigation activities.
4.a. Benefits on the implementation of drought Risk Reduction programme
975 families are able to do paddy cultivation is assured at least one crop per year as the ten water bodies and one supply channel have been deepened and strengthened by RUC.
The organic farming capacity building training and exposure enabled four hundred and thirty nine farmers to cultivate drought resistant crops like black gram, maize, raggi etc during the drought period and paddy, plantains during the December Rabi Season.
Six hundred and two landless poor, who are rearing milch animals are earning an additional monthly income of Rs.500/- to Rs.1000/.
Thirty one physically challenged people, who started income generation activities are earning an additional income of Rs. 800 to Rs.1500/- per month.
Three hundred and seven youth, who had undergone skill training have started earning the monthly income of rupees four thousand and five hundred.
4180 persons are made aware of the welfare measures of the Government
The continuous savings of the people will help them to face any drought situation. 698 persons have savings as have preparedness for drought.
The credit facilities availed by two hundred and sixty three people helped to start income generation of their own and are earning a regular monthly income of Rs:1500/, that leads to survive even during the period of drought
One thousand and sixty five persons are made aware of Insurance. 2738 people joined with various life insurance schemes transferred the life risk.
Nine hundred and seventeen children are aware of the disaster risk and climate change destructions.
The drinking water scarcity reduced in the seven villages namely Padapparkulam, Elangal, Chinthamani, Kallathi, Eduppur, Koonthakulam and Lethikulam due to the drinking water system installed by RUC.
The food grain stored in the food grain stores enabled food security even in drought for the communities in 11 villages.
Mock drills and the first aid trainings enabled to familiarize the rescue and emergency treatment measures in the event of fire, drought, floods, or earthquake.
The well equipped information Centre enabled the community to exchange hazard related information with the Government, to receive early warning, to link the community globally and for other development initiations.
Various systems such as Disaster Risk Reduction Task force committee, six sub committees and the Panchayat are effectively functioning (roles and responsibilities are defined and also having the contingency plan) to readily respond any hazards.
Majority people of eleven communities are resilience to drought risk.
4.b.Benefits on the implementation of flood Risk Reduction Programme
144 families reconstructed their houses and are relived from the risk of flood.
Four rescue centers were constructed and assured a refuge centre.
Drinking water availability was ensured in four villages benefitting 671 families.
Communities are flood risk free due to the silt removal and construction of retention walls.
Seventeen physically challenged people, who started income generation activities are earning an additional income of Rs. 800 to Rs.1500/- per month.
1600 families belongs to Ezhudesam, Mancadu, Akkarai, Paraikalmadam, Thinavilai, Thiruvidaicode, Nangandi, Anna Colony, Kurathiyarai, Kulathoor Keezhkarai, Kukkalvilagam, Kandankuzhi, Mannadi, Vavarai, Kanjampuram, Munichirai and Kunnathoor villages have restored their normal life.
Awareness campaigns were conducted to the people on Life Insurance with the support of Insurance Companies. 2825 families insured their life under various life insurance schemes.
713 families have savings made and have preparedness for flood season.
One hundred and thirty four children are taught DRR knowledge and on climate destruction.
The credit facilities availed by three hundred and twenty one people helped to start income generation of their own and are earning a regular monthly income of Rs: 1500/-, that leads to survive even during the period of flood.
The organic farming capacity building training and exposure enabled thirty two farmers to cultivate paddy, plantains during the December Rabi Season.
Mock drills and the first aid trainings enabled to familiarize the rescue and emergency treatment measures in the event of fire, floods, or earthquake.
Various systems such as Disaster Risk Reduction Task force committee, six sub committees and the Panchayat are effectively functioning (roles and responsibilities are defined and also having the contingency plan) to readily respond any hazards.
Majority people of four communities are resilience to drought risk.
4.c.Benefits received out of Policy advocacy:
Government of Tamil Nadu constituted State Disaster Management Authority and issued the notification.
The Tamil Nadu Government announced Tirunelveli district as drought prone district and implemented disaster risk reduction activities. Other tanks in the villages were deepened and strengthened under National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme. This helped the community to produce more food grains.
Government constructed twenty eight percolation tanks in the villages that helped for the collection of runoff rain water. The additional water facilities enhanced the irrigation as well as ground water level.
Government did the maintenance work of sluices in all the water bodies in all the villages to regularize the water supply.
Panchayats provided additional drinking water facilities and linked with the Tamirabarani Comprehensive drinking water supply system that ensured the regular drinking water supply benefitting 7253 persons.
The District Collector approved the food grain storage buildings and Disaster Management information Centres and ordered the 11 Panchayat to take over the responsibility of managing the food grain stores and Disaster Management information centres.
Government withdrawn the land tax for two years period as the Government notified the District as drought prone
5.5 lakhs Beedi workers of Tirunelveli District received wage increment of Rs. 12.35/- each for rolling 1000 beedies through tri-party agreement between the employers, trade union and Government.
NGOs are sensitized on CMDRR strategy and policy advocacy strategy to enhance the community resilience
Monitoring of Risk Reduction:
The members of the community along with the Drought Risk Reduction Task Force conducted a drought risk reduction monitoring exercise in the month of February 2011. They have found that most of the drought risk factors within the community were eliminated or reduced. During the above exercise the community prepared a revised risk reduction map and marked the unresolved risk factors in red colour, moderate risk factors in blue colour and completely reduced risk factors in green colour and also revised the contingency plan.
Contingency Plan:
The process of risk reduction monitoring exercise helped the members of the community and Disaster Risk Reduction Task Force committee members to prepare an action plan for responding severe drought and flood, if any in future.
The Plan includes:
Judicious utilization of drinking water.
Creating Community fund for disaster response.
Saving & storage of maximum possible food grains for the community as well as for the cattle.
Conducting of mock drills now and then.
Maintaining of the existing water sources.
Planting of more trees in and around the villages.
Popularizing organic farming.
Engaging the local Panchayat and Government to undertake climate change adaptation measures.
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